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钛标准件易产生的几种腐蚀及防护方法

发布时间:2020-12-01 06:22:56 浏览次数 :

钛标准件是一种量大面广的通用基础件,包括螺栓、螺钉、螺柱、螺母、自攻螺钉、木螺钉、垫圈、挡圈、销、铆钉、连接副和组合件及其他12大类,广泛用于通用机械、工程机械及国防工业等领域。标准件的品质和可靠性对主机的工作性能和结构安全性起着重要作用,一些重要的连接,可能因为这种失效酿成重大事故。

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MOUXIEFANGSHICUOSHIYEHUIYINGXIANGLINGJIANDEXINGNENG,LIRU,CHANGYONGDEDIANDUBIAOZHUNJIANKENENGCHUXIANQINGCUI;JIAOHOUDEBIAOMIANTUDUCENGJIANGYINGXIANGLUOWENDEXUANHEXING,YEYOUKENENGYINGXIANGLIANJIEQIANGDU。

钛及钛合金具有高比强度、优良的耐腐蚀性、良好的耐高温性能等,在航空、航天、船舶、地面武器装备等国防工业中得到了广泛应用。钛合金标准件连接件是飞机及地面武器装备上的典型结构件,其失效破坏包括标准件自身的疲劳、连接板材紧固孔处的疲劳及腐蚀疲劳等。一般情况下钛及钛合金表面可生成一层致密的氧化膜,起到防腐蚀的作用,但是在恶劣的环境中或者氧化膜破裂以及发生缝隙腐蚀的情况下,钛合金的耐腐蚀性能将大大降低。在海洋或潮湿环境中,标准件材料都存在不可预见的腐蚀性和由此带来的故障风险,当钛合金与结构钢、铝合金等异种金属接触时,由于电偶腐蚀,常常会加速其他金属及其自身的腐蚀,造成标准件及紧固孔周围产生破裂。因此,必须采取合适的防护措施以保证其环境耐久性满足在实际应用中尤其是国防工业中的安全性要求。以下探讨钛标准件的腐蚀控制技术。

钛标准件腐蚀控制方法与思路

RUQIANSUOSHU,TAIHEJINJIUCAILIAOBENSHENERYANJUYOUHAODENAISHIXING。DANDANGTAIHEJINZUOCHENGJIHEJIAN(RUBIAOZHUNJIANDENG)HUOYUQITAJINSHUJIECHUHUOTESHUDEHUANJINGTIAOJIANXIA,TAIHEJINZISHENHUODUIYUZHIOUDUIDEJINSHUDEFUSHIJIUKENENGFASHENG。

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1、缝隙腐蚀及控制

FENGXIFUSHIDEZHUYAOYINSUKEGAIKUOWEISANGEFANGMIAN,JICAILIAO、JIECHUHEHUANJING,YINERKONGZHIZHEILEIFUSHIDEGENBENCUOSHIYEYAOCONGZHEISANGEFANGMIANZHESHOU。SHOUXIANYINGHELIDIXUANZECAILIAO,SHIDANGDIZUOBIAOMIANGAIXINGYUBIAOMIANTUFUCENGCHULI,YIJIANGDIHUOXIAOCHUJIECHUFUSHIDEJIECHUYINSU。ZAIBIAOZHUNJIANPEIHEDESHEJISHANGYAOJINLIANGJIANSHAOHEBIMIANYIZHONGCAILIAODEJIECHU,BIXUJIECHUDEYEYAOJINXINGGELICHULI。GELICHULISHIYAOZHUYIBAOZHENGJINMIDEPEIHE,JINLIANGBIMIANFENGXIDEXINGCHENG。ZAIHUANJINGYINSUFANGMIANYAOBIMIANCHAOSHI、SHUIZHENGQI、YANWUHUANJING,JIAQIANGTONGFENG,LINGWAIHAIKEYITONGGUOMIFENGJIAOHUOMIFENGQIJIANGBIAOZHUNJIANYUGONGZUOHUANJINGGELI。

2、电偶腐蚀及控制

1)CAIYONGHELIDEDUCENG CAIYONGDIANDUDENGFANGFADUICAILIAOBIAOMIANJINXINGGAIXING,SHIXIANGJIECHUDECAILIAOJUYOUXIANGJINDEDIANWEI,CONGERJIANGDIJINSHUJIANDEDIANOUDIANLIU,KEYOUXIAODIFANGZHIDIANOUFUSHI。

2)YANGJIYANGHUAHUOHUAXUEZHUANHUACHULITAIHEJINYANGJIYANGHUAHOU,MOCENGDIANZUZENGDA,JIECHUDIANZUZENGJIA,ZEJIANGDILEDIANOUXIAOYING。YANJIUBIAOMING,TAIHEJINTC2YANGJIHUAKEYIYOUXIAODIJIANGDIYU30CrMnSiADEDIANOUDIANLIU。

DANGTAIHEJINYUQITACAILIAOOUDUISHI,TAIHEJINJINGYANGJIYANGHUACHULIYUWUYANGJIHUAMODETAIHEJINXIANGBI,QIDIANOUFUSHISUDUKEJIANGDIYUEYIGESHULIANGJI。

3)TUQIHUOTUJIAO TUFUHUAXUEFUGAICENGZUIHAOPEIHETUQIHUOTUJIAO,HUOZHEERZHETONGSHISHIYONG,YIJIANGJIECHUJIANJUEYUAN、FENGBI,CONGERYOUXIAODIXIAOCHUYOUYUJIECHUERZAOCHENGDEDIANOUFUSHI。YONGHUANYANGXINHUANGDIQI、SHUANGZUFENMIFENGJIAOFANGHU,KEYIYOUXIAODIFANGZHI0Cr13Ni8Mo2A1YULY12HETC4JIECHUSHIDEDIANOUFUSHI。

3、氢脆的控制

QIANSHUSUOZHI,TAIHEJINYUHUOXINGJINSHUJIEHEHOUBIAOMIANHUICHANSHENGQING,LINGWAIZAIGAOWENHUANJINGXIA(RUZAI80℃YISHANGSHI),YEHUICHANSHENGQINGCUI。YINCI,ZAIXUANYONGTAIHEJINCAILIAOZUOBIAOZHUNJIANSHI,SHOUXIANYAOKAOLVCAIYONGWEITIANJIAHUOXINGJINSHUDETAIHEJINCAILIAO,LINGWAIJINLIANGBIMIANZAIGAOWENHUANJING(RU80℃YISHANG)ZHONGSHIYONG。

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4、钛合金标准件间及其与偶对金属间的腐蚀控制

4.1 TAIHEJINBIAOZHUNJIANZHIJIAN

TAIHEJINZUOWEIBIAOZHUNJIANYINGYONGSHI,TAILUOSHUANCHANGYUTAI、JIEGOUGANG、BUXIUGANGHELVHEJINCAIZHIDELUOMUDENGPEIDUISHIYONG。TAIHEJINBIAOZHUNJIANZHIJIANDEFUSHIKONGZHISHIZHITAIHEJINLUOSHUANYULUOMUJITAIHEJINLUOSHUANYUSHANGSHUQITAJINSHUCAILIAOLUOMUZHIJIANDEFUSHIKONGZHIWENTI。YANJIUBIAOMING,TAIHEJINLUOSHUANJINXINGMAICHONGYANGJIHUAHEYIBANYANGJIHUACHULIHOU,YUJINXINGMAICHONGYANGJIHUACHULIDELUOMUJUYOULIANGHAODEJIECHUXIANGRONGXING,KEJIANZHEISHIYIZHONGBIJIAOHAODEZUHE,YOUYUQIYUBUXIUGANGLUOMUPEIDUISHIYONG;DANGDUILUOMULIANJIEQIANGDUYAOQIUBUTAIGAO、FUSHITIAOJIANKEKEXINGJIAODISHI,KEKAOLVSHIYONGYANGJIHUALY12LUOMUYUTC16LUOSHUANLIANJIE,ZHEICONGJINGJISHANGHEJIANQINGBIAOZHUNJIANZHILIANGSHANGDOUSHIYOUYIDE。

4.2 TAIHEJINBIAOZHUNJIANYUBEIJINGUJINSHUZHIJIANDEFUSHIKONGZHI

FEIJIMENGPIDALIANGCAIYONGLVHEJINCAILIAO、DIMIANZHUANGBEIDALIANGSHIYONGJIEGOUGANGJIHEJINCAILIAODENG,ZHEIXIECHENGZAIJIEGOUJIANYONGCAIDELIANJIECHANGYONGBIAOZHUNJIANLAIWANCHENG,ZHEISHIBIAOZHUNJIANYUJINGUDECHENGZAICAILIAOZHIJIANCHANSHENGJIECHU。TAIHEJINBIAOZHUNJIANJINGUDEJINSHUCAILIAOYIBIANXINGLVHEJINHEGAOQIANGDUJIEGOUGANGWEIZHU。WEICI,ZHUYAOFENXILVHEJINYUJIEGOUGANGZUOWEIZHUYAOCHENGZAICAILIAOSHI,YUTAIHEJINBIAOZHUNJIANZHIJIANDEDIANOUFUSHIXINGWEIJIKONGZHIFANGFA。

1)YULVHEJINBEIJINGUCAILIAOZHIJIAN YIJINGYOUYANJIUZHEDUIDAIBAOLVCENGHEQUBAOLVCENGYANGJIHUALY12LIANGZHONGJINGUJINSHUSHIJIANDEJIHUAXINGWEIJIYUQIOUDUICAILIAODEBIAOZHUNDIANOUFUSHISHIYANHEZUHESHIYANGDEZHONGXINGYANWUJIASUFUSHISHIYANJINLEYANJIU,JIEGUOBIAOMING,DAIBAOLVCENGYANGJIHUALVHEJINLY12DEDANDUDUIBISHIJIANDENAISHIXINGYAOYOUYUQUBAOLVCENGSHIJIAN,DANGTAMENYONGTAIHEJINMAICHONGYANGJIHUALUOSHUANHELUOMULIANJIESHI,YOUYUMAICHONGYANGJIHUATAIHEJINHEYANGJIHUALVHEJINZHIJIANCUNZAIFEICHANGDADEDIANJIDIANWEICHA,YINERTAMENZHIJIANCUNZAIYANZHONGDEDIANOUFUSHIQINGXIANG,DAIBAOLVCENGDESHIJIANSHOUXIANCHUXIANFUSHIJIXIANG,DANSHIZHENGGEFUSHIZHOUQINEI,DAIBAOLVCENGDESHIJIANNAISHIXINGYOUYUQUBAOLVCENGDE,JIBAOLVCENGKEYITIGAOYANGJIHUAMOCENGDENAISHIXING;CAIYONGTAIHEJINDULVDUNHUALUOSHUAN,PEIHESHIYONGYANGJIHUALY12LUOMU,CONGDIANHUAXUEJIAODULAIKAN,DULVDUNHUAMOHELVHEJINYANGJIYANGHUAMOZHIJIANDEDIANJIDIANWEICHAHENXIAO,JUYOUFEICHANGHAODEDIANOUXIANGRONGXING,ZUHESHIJIANDEYANWUJIASUSHIYANJIANYANYEZHENGSHI,MEIYOUMINGXIANDEDIANOUFUSHIFASHENG,JIECHUXIANGRONGXINGFEICHANGHAO。YINCI,TAIHEJINBIAOZHUNJIANYULVHEJINJINGUCAILIAOZHIJIANDEDIANOUFUSHIKONGZHIKEYICAIQUZHEIYANGDEKONGZHIFANGFA。

2)YUJIEGOUGANGBEIJINGUCAILIAOZHIJIAN CONGTAIHEJINYUJIEGOUGANGOUDUIDEBIAOZHUNDIANOUFUSHISHUJUFENXIZHI,JIEGOUGANGYUTAIHEJINBIAOZHUNJIANBUNENGZHIJIEJIECHU(JIEGOUGANGYUTAIHEJINLUOJIANDEZHIJIANDEDIANOUDIANLIUWEI6.165 μm/cm2),YINCIYOUBIYAODUITAMENJINXINGBIAOMIANGAIXINGCHULI。DUIJIEGOUGANGZIFUSHIDENAISHIXINGYANJIUBIAOMING,JIEGOUGANGDUGEDUNHUADENAISHIXINGZUIHAO,QICIWEIJIEGOUGANGDUXINDUNHUA。BULUNZIFUSHIHAISHIDIANOUFUSHI,DOUBIJIEGOUGANGLUOJIANYUTAIHEJINBIAOZHUNJIANJIECHUSHIDENAISHIXINGHAO。DANGTAIHEJINBIAOZHUNJIANYUJIEGOUGANGLUOJIANJIECHUSHI,BUTONGDETAIHEJINBIAOZHUNJIANJINGBUTONGDEBIAOMIANCHULIHOU,JUYOUBUTONGDEDIANOUDIANLIU,YOUXIAODAODASHUNXUWEI:MAICHONGYANGJIHUA<YIBANYANGJIHUA<LUOJIAN,YINERXUANZETAIHEJINMAICHONGYANGJIHUALUOSHUANSHIXIANGDUIHELIDE,DANSHICONGZUHESHIJIANDESHIYANJIEGUOZHI,ERZHEZHIJIANDEDIANOUXIAOYINGBIJIAODA,YINCI,BUTUIJIANZHIJIEYONGMAICHONGYANGJIHUALUOSHUANLIANJIEJIEGOUGANGLUOJIAN,KEYICAIYONGFENGJUEYUANJIAOHUOJIAJUEYUANDIANPIANDENGFANGFALAIJIANGDIHUOXIAOCHUERZHEZHIJIANDEDIANOUFUSHI。YOUCIKEZHI,KONGZHITAIHEJINBIAOZHUNJIANYUJIEGOUGANGZHIJIANDEDIANOUFUSHIDEZUIJIAFANGANWEIJIEGOUGANGJINXINGDUGEDUNHUACHULI,TAIHEJINBIAOZHUNJIANZAIJINXINGDULVDUNHUACHULI。

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